URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站 - URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站 - URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站 - URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站 -URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站 - URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站 - URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站 - URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站 - URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站 - URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站 - URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站 - URBAN CURATING 城市策展 - FACE TRACKING 人脸追踪 - VIRTUAL REALITY 虚拟现实 - RELAX AREA 休闲区 - AUGMENTED REALITY 增强现实 - RAILWAY STATION 火车站

Extraction Networks: Territorial Patterns of Coal, Oil and Natural Gas


开采基础设施网络 Extraction Networks: Territorial Patterns of Coal, Oil and Natural Gas

Design Across Scales Lab (Cornell University)

城市和区域发展与能源开采和消费交织在一起。这种陆地景观可称为“开采基础设施网络”。该网络的文档存在于企业、政府和环境数据库的复杂分布中,然而,总能源网络几乎没有体现。这项研究将分散和碎片化的文档集中在一起,综合体现了当代美国能源格局的层次和范围。

美国能源经济的历史包含了每个能源时代的经济、环境和政治优先事项之间的紧张关系。能源经济始于东海岸的森林砍伐,随之而来的是煤炭开采、石油钻探、原子分裂以及天然气水力压裂。能源运输的基础设施已经发展成为日趋“单向”的系统。这些基础设施的加速自动化减少了城市产品流向支付环境成本的社区。这种从双向基础设施向单向基础设施的转变破坏了早期能源时代诸如运河和铁路这样的能源流动所创造和维持的社区。虽然新的高效系统降低了城市的能源成本,但它们也增加了需求,并且需要进一步加强开采网络(extraction network)。

贫富差距的增加、环境污染的加剧和农村人口的减少,表明了能源经济对美国城市和农村地区的负面影响。如今,城市消耗了世界75%的初级能源。城市能源消耗产生了广泛的影响。壮阔的开采景观由成千上万的矿井和水井、数百万英里的州际和州内管道以及数千个为城市技术需求提供动力的发电站构成。由于这些能源网络尚未被全面了解,对于利用和扩展这些网络的后果,公众知之更少。对相互关联的开采基础设施网络的可视化,使人们意识到能源企业的范围及其对城市和地区的影响可能十分广泛。随着城市越来越意识到其能源轨迹、基础设施网络和日益扩大的环境影响,他们将如何寻求有利于城市和非城市地区的可持续解决方案?

Urban and regional development is intertwined with energy extraction and consumption. This territorial landscape could be called the “extraction infrastructure network”. The documentation of this network exists in a complex distribution of corporate, government and environmental databases, however, there is little to no representation of the total energy network. This research pulls together the distributed and fragmented documentation into a synthetic representation of the layers and extents of the contemporary American energy landscape.

The history of the American energy economy contains tensions between the economic, environmental and political priorities of each energy era. The energy economy began with the logging of the east coast forests, continued to the mining of coal, the drilling for oil, the splitting of the atom, and the hydraulic fracturing of natural gas. Infrastructures of energy transportation have developed as increasingly ‘one-way’ systems. Accelerated automation of these infrastructures has reduced the flow of the products of the city to the communities that paid the environmental costs. This shift from two-way to one-way infrastructures has devastated communities that were created and sustained by the reciprocal flows of energy, such as canals and railways, of the early energy eras. While new efficient systems have lowered the cost of energy in the city, they have also increased demand and have required further intensification of the extraction network.

The growth in economic inequality, increase in environmental contamination and decrease of rural populations demonstrate the inverse effects of the energy economy on urban and rural territories in the United States. Cities today consume 75% of the world’s primary energy. Urban energy consumption has had widespread impacts. An extended landscape of extraction that consists of hundreds of thousands of mines and wells, millions of miles of interstate and intrastate pipelines, and thousands of power generation stations fuels the technological demand of the city. Because these energy networks are not comprehensively understood, the public is less conscious of the consequences of utilizing and expanding this network. The visualization of the interlinked extraction infrastructure network brings an awareness of the extents and expanse of energy enterprises with its effects on the city and region. As cities become more aware of their energy footprints, the web of infrastructure that enables them, and their extended environmental impacts, how will they seek sustainable solutions that benefit both urban and non-urban territories alike?